Dr. Alois Alzheimer Memorial and Conference Centre
On June 14th 1864, Aloysius Alzheimer was born in Marktbreit as the son of the notary Eduard Alzheimer. The origin of the name “Alzheimer’s disease” lies with a 51-year-oldpatient who was taken to hospital in Frankfurt in November 1901, where the physicians diagnosed signs of dementia. In November 1906, Alois Alzheimer spoke about this patient at a convention in Tübingen. His report was titled “About a strange disease of the cerebral cortex”. Later the early-onset of dementia was – proposed by Emil Kraepelin – named “Alzheimer’s disease”.
In 1636, a new phase in the Jewish history of Marktbreit began when the Bishop of Würzburg, Franz von Hatzfeld, housed the Jews in the town for high protection fees. A fire destroyed the Jewish parish hall in 1714. However, with the money of the Wertheimer family of court Jews a new synagogue was constructed. It included an Israeli school with accomodation for teachers, and a ritual bath, which can be found in the basement. Today it serves as a residential house, with Byzantine decorations found only on the entrance portal and the façade to remind oneself of its past.
Georg Ludwig v. Seinsheim (1514 – 1591), who was an imperial councillor of the prince-bishop, built the castle in 1580. It was a representational building, in the style of the Renaissance. In 1865, the “Seinsheimer Castle” became the “Schwarzenberger Amtshaus”, containing a seat of the administrator. After a reconstruction in 1994, these days there is a café and a wine bar on the ground floor. You can also find the town library and the municipal archive there.
It was built around 1579/81 by the well-known stonecutter Hans Keesenbrod from Segnitz.At the corner and also at the peak of the gable roof of the town hall you can see the emblem of Marktbreit, a statue of the knight of St. George, killing a dragon with his lance. This statue on the gable was a symbol for the customs duty rights for shipping on the Main, and it was possible to see this symbol from the ships on the river at quite a distance. The statue on the corner of the town hall symbolises the right to hold markets. On the first floor you can find the ballroom and the panelled former council hall, which is now used as a wedding hall.
Next to the road B13 on the grounds of Gnodstadt is the "Pyramid". On the southern side you can read the Latin inscription, which was translated into German:
"Denkmal zur Erinnerung an die Herstellung dieser Staatsstraße, die von dem allergnädigsten Fürsten und Herren Christian Karl Alexander, Markgrafen zu Brandenburg, nicht aus Steuern der Untertanen sondern aus eigenen Mitteln erbaut wurde in den Jahren 1766 bis 1773."
(Memorial for the construction of this state street, which was built from 1766-1773 by the most gracious lord Christian Karl Alexander,margrave of Brandenburg, not financed through taxes but by his own funds.)
The history of the “Malerwinkel” in Marktbreit, which once consisted of three separate buildings, goes back to the economical glory days of the market place at the beginning of the 18th century. The estate got its shape today after a renovation in 1774. In former times, the house benefited from its convenient location as it was visible to visitors of the market who came from either the east or the north.
The trade with spices really boomed in this house. After a comprehensive restoration in 1991, the “Malerwinkel” was converted into an interesting museum that everyone can visit. More information at: www.malerwinkelhaus.de (in German)
War Memorial on the Chapel Hill
In 1936 the old chapel ruin on the Chapel Hill was restored and converted into a war memorial of the district Kitzingen. Inside, there are memorial inscriptions to the fallen victims of the 1st and the 2nd World War of the district Kitzingen. Also there is a horizontal view of a dead warrior and a fresco painting.
It is a monument to the wealthy trading connections on the river Main. There had already been a predecessor to the present “Mainkran”, which had been built with timber framing. It was completely ripped away by the most disastrous flood of the last few centuries in 1784. In the same year, Earl Johann Adam von Schwarzenberg constructed a new crane. The round tower is 16 metres high and has a diameter of 9.2 metres. Inside the tower there is a well preserved and original “double wheel engine” made from oak. The tower was in use until about 1900.
Catholic Church “St. Ludwig”
Built from 1846-49. Thanks to the generous support of the Bavarian King, Ludwig I, the church was inaugurated on 12.10.1849. It was built in a neo-gothic style and has round arched styled windows. The pews, the baptismal font and the confessional are still from the early days of the church. Fresco paintings by Willi Jakob of Würzburg (painting of St. Joseph and the Virgin of Mercy in 1938, painting of the High Altar, 1956).
Trading houses on Market Square
The well-known trading houses on Market Square were built in the 18th century in the style of the Würzburg Baroque. The house on the right hand side at the beginning of the “Schustergasse” was constructed in 1717-1719 by the Baroque architect Joseph Greisinger. The tradesman Georg Günther built the house on the left in 1725. His family influenced the trading history in Marktbreit for over 200 years.
The history of this building begins in the 15th century, as it was a guesthouse and “a baronial hostel”. Its internal framework design from the 18th century has been exposed since the beginning of the 20th century. One of the guests in the second oldest guesthouse of Bavaria was the sovereign Louis I, King of Bavaria.
The cemetery already lay outside of the town walls in 1566. Inside one of the open halls are many remarkable Franconian works of art. The oldest one of these numerous epitaphs is from 1587. The graveyard of Marktbreit is also the final resting place of many important people.
Protestant church “St. Nikolai“
The protestant church “St. Nicolai” consists of a late gothic presbytery and an early gothic tower basement, which was built in the first half of the 14th century. In the 15th century the building was expanded. In the presbytery there is a Sakramentshäuschen”. It is a little room for sacraments, which was built around the year 1400 from sandstone. There is a Baroque pulpit in the nave, which was donated by Joh. Chr. Marschall in 1737. This pulpit shows four apostles and four hourglasses. Distinctive features of the building are the five Seinsheimer epitaphs from the 16th century.
In 1985, with aerial archaeology, a 2000-year-old Roman camp was discovered on Kapellenberg, a hill near Marktbreit. The 37 ha large camp was one of the biggest in the early days of the Germania libera. Nowadays, you can walk around the former Roman camp on a circular path.
Protestant Lutheran parish church in the district of Gnodstadt
The tower of the church dates from the 13th century and the spire dates back to 1577. The late gothic chancel was built in 1492. The nave in the heart of the church is also gothic, but it was altered in the 18th century. Inside the church two-storey and three-storey galleries face north and west. The painted scenes of passion on the central northern gallery parapets were uncovered during the last renovation.